Cox, L, et al. Allergen immunotherapy: a practice parameter second update. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;127(suppl):S25-85, IV
Li, JT, et al. Allergen immunotherapy: a practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;90:1-40
Nelson, M. 2009. Physician’s Instruction Guide for the Preparation of Allergen Extract.
The Joint Council of Allergy & Immunology (JCAAI):
The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI)
The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI)
General Allergic Inflammation:
Galli, SJ et al (2008) The development of allergic inflammation. Nature; 454: 445-454
Mechanisms of IT:
Larche, M., et al. 2006. Immunological mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy. Nature Reviews Immunology Vol 6, Oct 2006, 761-771
Plunkett, G. 2008. Stability of allergen extracts used in skin testing and immunotherapy. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery 2008, 16:285-291.
Dilution, temp, preservative:
Niemeijer, N. Effect of dilution, temperature, and preservatives on the long-term stability of standardized inhalant allergen extracts. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996;76:535-40.
Mold extract differences based on preparation, stability with different diluents:
Hansen, M 1994. Allergens in Aspergillus fumigatus: I. Characterization of two different allergen extracts and evaluation of their stability and the importance of carbohydrate for IgE
binding. Allergy 1994: 49: 235-241.
Mixing pollen with mold, cockroach, dust mite:
Kordash, T, et al, 1993. Effect of mixing allergenic extracts containing Helminthosporium, D. farinae, and cockroach with perennial ryegrass. Annals of Allergy, Vol 71, Sept. 1993.
Mixing fire ant with other extracts:
Rans, T. et al 2009. Compatibility of imported fire ant whole body extract with cat, ragweed, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and timothy grass allergens. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;102:57-61.
Temp excursions and shipping data:
ALK Internal stability study (2004) validating current shipping methods in the hottest and coldest months (worst case).
General Protein Stability:
BT&C, Inc. MAINTENANCE OF PROTEIN STABILITY
Established in 1987, Biotechnology Training and Consulting (BT&C) originally focused on the training of pharmaceutical scientists in hands-on techniques in biotechnology.
FDA Statement on Alum Safety:
ALK Abstracts about Stability (Internal R&D):
Plunkett 2007 AAAAI – Stability of Major Allergen Proteins in Extract Mixes Diluted in Human Serum Albumin (HSA), Normal Saline (NSP), or Glycerin (GLY)
Plunkett & Schell 2010 ACAAI – Stability of Allergen Extracts Diluted in Saline or Human Serum Albumin
Plunkett & Schell 2008 AAAAI – Stability of Allergenic Extracts in Multi-Test II® and Duotip-Test® II Skin Testing Wells
Plunkett & Schell 2010 AAAAI – Allergen Extract Stability Following Short Term Temperature Variations
Plunkett 2006 ACAAAI – Stability of Major Allergen Proteins in Dilutions of Extract Mixes
Morrow, KS, & Slater, JE. Regulatory aspects of allergen vaccines in the US. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2001 Oct;21(2-3):141-52.
ALK Abstract about Dust Mite major allergen and variability not seen in AU:
Plunkett, G. et al. AAAAI 2009. Standardization and Characterization of US House Dust Mite Extracts
Van Rhee 2006 – Indoor allergens: relevance of major allergen measurements and standardization. J Allergy Clin Immunol
Plunkett, G. Major Allergens and Allergenic Extracts. ALK Technical Memo, May 2008.
ALK Abstract about Validating Internal Assays:
Plunkett, G. et al. ACAAI 2002. Validation of an ELISA for Determining Dust Mite
D. pteronyssinus (Dpt) Major Allergen Der p 1
Plunkett, G. et al. AAAAI 2002. Validation of an ELISA for Determining Cat Major Allergen Fel d 1
ALK Abstract about using internal assays to perform QC on unstandardized extracts:
Plunkett, G. et al. AAAAI 2004. Quality Control of Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts: Major Allergen and IgE Binding of Birch, English Plantain and Olive Pollen
White, J. & Bernstein, D. Key pollen allergens in North America. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;91:425– 435.
White, J., et al. Lack of correlation between regional pollen counts and percutaneous reactivity to tree pollen extracts in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;94:240-246.
Thommen’s postulates on allergenic importance:
Thompson A. In: Asthma and Hay fever in theory and practice. (Ed. By Coca, Walzer & Thommen) 1931; p.851, Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.
Weber, R. 2007. Cross-reactivity of pollen allergens: impact on
allergen immunotherapy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;99:203–212.
Radauer, C, & Breiteneder, H. 2007. Evolutionary biology of plant food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Sep;120(3):518-25.
Aalberse, R. 2007. Assessment of allergen cross-reactivity. Clinical and Molecular Allergy 2007, 5:2
Aalberse, R., et al. 2001. Cross-reactivity of IgE antibodies to allergens. Allergy 2001: 56: 478–490.
Aalberse, R. 2000. Structural biology of allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:228-38.)
Lieberman P, Nicklas RA, Oppenheimer J, et al. The diagnosis and management
of anaphylaxis practice parameter: 2010 update. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;126:477-80, e1-42.
Nelson, H. Variables in allergy skin testing. IMMUNOLOGY AND ALLERGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA. VOLUME 21 * NUMBER 2 MAY 2001
Lack of correlation with tests and clinical outcome (Venom):
Warrington, R. 2006. Lack of Correlation between Severity of Clinical Symptoms, Skin Test Reactivity, and Radioallergosorbent Test Results in Venom-Allergic Patients. Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology / Volume 2, Number 2, Summer 2006
Seasonal Histamine Response (ALK Abstract):
Young, J, et al, ACAAI 2011. Seasonal Pattern Seen With Customer Complaints for Skin Test Non-Reactive Positive Control Histamine
Variable Histamine Skin Response at different concentrations, with different devices, under antihistamine inhibition (ALK Abstract):
Multi-test best skin testing device:
Nelson, H et al. 1998. Evaluation of devices for skin prick testing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;101:153-6
Dykewicz, M, et al 2011. Comparison of the Multi-Test II and ComforTen allergy skin test devices. Allergy Asthma Proc 32:1-5, 2011.
Skin Test Titration:
Biological standardization of allergenic extracts. Turkeltaub PC. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1989 Mar-Apr;17(2):53-65.
United States Pharmacopeial Convention 2008. <797> Pharmaceutical Compounding—Sterile Preparations. Pg. 16 – Allergen Extracts as CSPs.
JCAAI USP 797 Update (June 11, 2008)
Letz, A., et al. Monitoring bacteriostasis in allergen extract mixing: 10 years of culture data. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009; 123: 1175-6
AllFam: Database of Allergen Families: http://www.meduniwien.ac.at/allergens/allfam/search.php
ALLERGEN NOMENCLATURE: International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee: www.allergen.org
ALLERGOME: The Platform for Allergen Knowledge: www.allergome.org
PHADIA: ImmunoCAP Allergens: http://www.phadia.com/nl/Allergenen/ImmunoCAP-Allergens/